Malting : The partial germination of malted grains in order to activate the enzymes
needed during the mashing process. The process is usually stopped at the very beginning
of germination so to leave as much potential food- carbohydrates as possible for
Mashing : The act of putting malted grains into water at certain temps to activate
the enzymes in the grains and start the conversion of starches to sugars in addition
to breaking down proteins , etc to be used by the yeast later on during fermentation.
Phenols : Long chain molecules usually from tannins. They taste and smell like medicine
and are the chief components to chill haze.
Pitching : The act of introducing yeast to the wort. From a time when brewers would
pitch or throw the yeast onto the wort.
Protein Rest : Holding a temperature during the mash so as to allow the enzymes to
thoroughly break down large proteins into smaller more manageable ones for the yeast
during fermentation. Also helps with the reduction of Phenols so as to prevent chill
Racking : The act of moving the beer from one vessel to another. Usually from say
a primary fermenter to a secondary fermenter. Also rack from fermenter to bottling
bucket via a racking cane.
Saccharification : The conversion of malt starches into sugars.
Sparge : See Lautering - To sprinkle heated water over the mash bed in order to
filter and strain a portion of the remaining sugars in the grain bed to the boiling
vessel. To increase the wort strength and content. PH is measured carefully at the
output of the grain bed so as to know when to stop sparging unless one wants to extract
tannins into the wort.
Tannins : A bitter mediciny tasting phenol present in malt and hops. Not a desirable
component to the finished beer.
Trub : pronounced troob - All the materials in the wort/beer that coagulate and fall
to the bottom of the fermenter. Contains hops, proteins, peptides, fibers, yeast,